Immigration Act of 1924

Calvin Coolidge

Definition and Summary of the Immigration Act of 1924
Summary and Definition: The Immigration Act of 1924 made the principle of national origin quotas the permanent basis for U.S. immigration policy. The Immigration Act of 1924 (Johnson-Reed Act) restricted the number of immigrants from a given country to 2% of the number of residents from that same country living in the United States. 

The Immigration Act of 1924
The percentage quotas were strongly biased towards to the "Old Immigrants" from North-Western Europe as as opposed to the "New Immigrants" from South-Eastern Europe. The Immigration Act of 1924 shut the 'Golden Door' to America and 87% of immigration permits (visas) went to immigrants from Britain, Ireland, Germany, and Scandinavia. The law completely excluded immigrants from Asia.

The Immigration Act of 1924
Calvin Coolidge was the 30th American President who served in office from August 2, 1923 to March 4, 1929. One of the important events during his presidency was the Immigration Act of 1924.

   
  

Immigration Act of 1924: Consolidates US laws Restricting Immigration
The Immigration Act of 1924 consolidated the principles of the following acts and made them permanent features of US law to restrict Immigration:

● The 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act
● The
Immigration Act of 1907
The Immigration Act of 1917 (Asiatic Barred Zone)
The 1921 Emergency Quota Act
The National Origins Act of 1924

Immigration Act of 1924 - Effects of US Immigration Laws

Immigration Act of 1924
 

Immigration Act of 1924 Facts for kids: Fast Fact Sheet
Fast, fun facts and Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ's) about the Immigration Act of 1924.

What was the Immigration Act of 1924? The Immigration Act of 1924 limited the number of immigrants allowed entry into the United States through a national origins quota. The quota limited immigration visas to 2% of the total number of people of each nationality in the United States, according to the 1890 national census. All immigrants had to obtain a visa from an American consul in their country of origin.

Why was the Immigration Act of 1924 passed? The Immigration Act of 1924 was passed in response to political and public opinion calling for restrictions on immigration from South-Eastern Europe following events in the US such as 1919 recession and high unemployment, civil unrest and the Red Scare.

What was an important effect of the Immigration Act of 1924? One of the most important effects and significance was by using the US 1890 census, rather than the population census of 1910 or 1920, it excluded the new wave of foreign-born from South-Eastern Europe from quotas truly proportionate to their new numbers in the population. The effect on immigration from Europe is conveyed in the picture on the right.

Immigration Act of 1924 Facts for kids: Reasons why the law was passed
There were numerous reasons why the Immigration Act of 1924 was passed:

Immigration levels between 1900-1920 had soared, reaching over 14 million new immigrants into America
The Dillingham Commission Report had inflamed racial prejudice towards immigrants from South-Eastern Europe creating discrimination between Old and New Immigrants
The Eugenics Movement, the pseudo-science supported by highly prominent and influential people, fueled anti-immigrant and racist beliefs in America
The 1919 recession and high unemployment had led to strikes, violence and riots that prompted the Red Scare in America
Nativism and  xenophobia in America led to a wave of anti-immigration hysteria that swept the country - the government became under enormous pressure to restrict immigration

Immigration Act of 1924 Facts for kids
The following fact sheet contains interesting facts and information on Immigration Act of 1924 for kids.

Facts about the Immigration Act of 1924 for kids

Fact 1: The objective of the act was to limit the migration of aliens into the United States. The law limited the number of immigrants allowed entry into the United States through a national origins quota which was designed to select immigrants deemed to be best suited to American society.

Fact 2: When was the 1924 Immigration Act passed? The Immigration Act of 1924 was approved by Congress on May 26, 1924.

Fact 3: The law is also referred to as the Johnson-Reed Act after its congressional sponsors, Representative Albert Johnson (1869-1957) and Senator David Reed (1880-1953).

Fact 4: The 1924 law immediately reduced the 1921 temporary annual quota of immigrants allowed to enter the US from 358,000 to 154,000.

Fact 5: The law created a permanent quota system (the 1921 Emergency Quota Act was only temporary) providing that that from July 1, 1927 (later postponed to July 1, 1929) the national origins quota system would be adopted

Fact 6: The percentage quota limited immigration visas was reduced from 3% to 2% of the total number of people of each nationality in the United States, according to the 1890 national census.

Fact 7: The law prohibited entry of aliens not eligible for US citizenship, thereby formally excluding entry of Japanese, Chinese, and other Asian immigrants.

Fact 8: The “consular control system” of immigration was established requiring that all immigrants had to obtain a visa from an American consul in their country of origin.

Fact 9: By using the US 1890 population census, rather than the censuses taken in 1910 or 1920, the law excluded the new wave of foreign-born from South-Eastern Europe (referred to as "New Immigrants" from quotas that were truly proportionate to their new numbers in the US population.

Fact 10: The distinction between "Old Immigrants" and "New Immigrants" was made in the Dillingham Commission Report which discriminated between Old and New Immigrants

Continued...

Facts about the Immigration Act of 1924 for kids

Immigration Act of 1924 Facts for kids
The following fact sheet contains interesting facts and information on Immigration Act of 1924 for kids.

Facts about the Immigration Act of 1924 for kids

Immigration Act of 1924 Fact 11: The Dillingham Commission Report had concluded that the "New Immigrants" from South-Eastern Europe were "inferior, uneducated and posed a serious threat to American society" and recommended that immigration to America by "New Immigrants" should be restricted.

Immigration Act of 1924 Fact 12: "New Immigrants" were defined as people from Jewish and Slovak races who  came from South eastern European countries such as such as Italy, Greece, Russia, Slovakia, Hungary, Russia, Poland, Croatia, Lithuania and Serbia

Immigration Act of 1924 Fact 13: "Old Immigrants" were defined as people from Anglo-Saxon or Nordic races who came from the North Western areas of Europe such as Britain, Ireland, Scotland, Holland, Germany, France and Scandinavia

Immigration Act of 1924 Fact 14: Whilst the law cut the percentage quota for North-Western European countries it absolutely slashed the  percentage quota for South-Eastern European countries.

Immigration Act of 1924 Fact 15: The 1890 census showed the countries of origin of the majority of the US population were particularly high from North-Western Europe e.g. Great Britain (43%), Germany (17%), Ireland (12%)

Immigration Act of 1924 Fact 16: Between 1901 - 1920 over 14 million immigrants arrived in the US, to the alarm of established Americans.  The US census of 1910 and 1920 therefore reflected the massive immigration levels from South-Eastern European countries (which would have increased their percentage quotas).

Immigration Act of 1924 Fact 17: The effect of the law was staggering. For example, the quota for Italy, was reduced from 42,057 to 3,845 people.

Immigration Act of 1924 Fact 18: The law exempted people from the Western Hemisphere from the quota system and a record number of Mexican immigrants entered the United States. Mexican labor was needed in the labor-short farmlands of America. According to the U.S. census between 1910 and 1930, the number of immigrants from Mexico tripled from 200,000 to 600,000 - refer to Mexican Migration.

Immigration Act of 1924 Fact 19: The Immigration Act of 1924 governed US immigration policy until revisions were made in the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952.

Immigration Act of 1924 Fact 20: Immigration to the United States markedly decreased, in part because of the Immigration Act of 1924, but also because of worldwide economic depression.

Immigration Act of 1924 Fact 21: From 1924 to 1947, only 2,718,006 immigrants gained entry to the United States

Immigration Act of 1924 Fact 22: The Immigration Act of 1924 governed US immigration policy until revisions were made in the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952.

Immigration Act of 1924 Fact 23: The percentage quotas remained in place with minor alterations until the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965.

Facts about the Immigration Act of 1924 for kids

Facts about Immigration Act of 1924 for kids
For visitors interested in the history of US Immigration refer to the following articles:

Immigration Act of 1924 for kids - President Calvin Coolidge Video
The article on the Immigration Act of 1924 provides detailed facts and a summary of one of the important events during his presidential term in office. The following Calvin Coolidge video will give you additional important facts and dates about the political events experienced by the 30th American President whose presidency spanned from August 2, 1923 to March 4, 1929.

Immigration Act of 1924

● Interesting Facts about Immigration Act of 1924 for kids and schools
● Summary of the Immigration Act of 1924 in US history
● Immigration Act of 1924 of important, key events
● Calvin Coolidge Presidency from August 2, 1923 to March 4, 1929
● Fast, fun facts about the Immigration Act of 1924
● Foreign & Domestic policies of President Calvin Coolidge
● Calvin Coolidge Presidency and Immigration Act of 1924 for schools, homework, kids and children

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