The Abolitionist Movement

President Andrew Jackson

Summary and Definition of the Abolitionist Movement
Definition and Summary: What was the Abolitionist Movement? The Abolitionist Movement was a social pressure group whose organization was based in the North and established to abolish the institution of slavery. The goal of the abolitionist movement in the industrialized free states of the North was the emancipation of slaves in the agricultural slave states of the south that depended on slave labor for their cash crop economy. 

Abolitionist Movement for kids
Andrew Jackson was the 7th American President who served in office from March 4, 1829 to March 4, 1837. One of the important events during his presidency was the emergence of the Abolitionist Movement in 1831.


Abolitionist Movement for kids: Background History
What were the historical events that led to the start of the Abolitionist Movement? The United States were divided by Northern states whose economy was based on manufacturing and industrialization and the Southern States whose climate and natural resources dictated an economy based on the labor intensive farming of tobacco, rice, cotton, sugar cane and indigo.
The invention of the Eli Whitney Cotton Gin had a huge impact on slavery turning cotton into a cash crop in 1800, using the slave plantation system of farming. The 1830 religious revival movement, referred to as the Second Great Awakening, inspired the establishment of Abolitionist (anti-slavery) movements in the North, in which people called for emancipation on religious grounds. Other reform movements later started to emerge such as Women's suffrage.

What was the Goal of the Abolitionist Movement?
What was the goal of the Abolitionist Movement? The goal of the Abolitionist Movement was to abolish slavery. Various methods were employed to achieve their goal including:

● Protest groups focused attention on slavery
● Anti-slavery propaganda by Journalists and Authors such as Anthony Benezet, David Walker, William Ellery Channing, William Lloyd Garrison, Elijah Lovejoy, Frederick Douglass and Harriet Beecher Stowe
● Political pressure as Abolitionists petitioned legislatures
● Militant Activists increased pressure including John Brown’s raid at the federal arsenal in Harper’s Ferry

When did Abolitionist Movement begin?
When did Abolitionist Movement begin? The Abolitionist Movement was established in 1830. Up to the passing of the 13th Amendment slaves could only escape the bondage of slavery via systems such as the
"Underground Railroad" or to spend many years working towards their goal of Buying Freedom from Slavery  

Who were the leaders of the Abolitionist Movement?
The most famous leaders of the Abolitionist Movement, including 'Conductors' in the Underground Railroad were:

● William Lloyd Garrison ● Theodore Weld ● Wendell Phillips ● Elijah Lovejoy ● Sojourner Truth ● Hariett Tubman ● Samuel and Florella Adair ● William Still ● Dr. John Doy ● Anthony Benezet ● David Walker ● Ezekial and Mary Jane Colman ● Samuel Wood ● Harriet Beecher Stowe  ● Rev. Richard Cordley ● John Speer ● Frederick Douglass ● William Ellery Channing ● Samuel Newitt Wood ● William Lloyd Garrison ● John Greenleaf ● Arthur and Lewis Tappan ● Susan B. Anthony ● David Ruggles ● Calvin Fairbank ● Levi Coffin ● Captain Jonathan Walker ● Josiah Henson ● Erastus Hussey ● John Fairfield ●

Abolitionist Movement Facts for kids
Interesting Abolitionist Movement Facts and Timeline for kids are detailed below. The history of Abolitionist Movement is told in a factual timeline sequence consisting of a series of short facts providing a simple method of relating the famous people and events of Abolitionism.

Abolitionist Movement Timeline and Facts for kids

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 1: 1688: Dutch and German Quakers published a pamphlet denouncing the practice of slavery

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 2: 1725 - 1750: The First Great Awakening began in 1725, sparked by George Whitefield bringing about activism in social reform

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 3: 1775: Abolitionist Society - Anthony Benezet of Philadelphia founds the world’s first abolitionist society.

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 4: 1787: Benjamin Franklin becomes the president of the Abolitionist Society in 1787.

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 5: 1791–1804: A slave revolt started on the  coffee and sugar plantations in the French colony of Saint-Domingue in Haiti. Over 60,000 people were killed

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 6: 1793: The invention of the Eli Whitney Cotton Gin had a huge impact on slavery turning cotton into a cash crop, using the slave plantation system of farming

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 7: 1793: Fugitive Slave Act outlaws any efforts to impede the capture of runaway slaves.

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 8: 1800: Gabriel Prosser slave uprising in Virginia

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 9: 1803: Igbo Landing slave uprising in Georgia

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 10: 1805: Chatham Manor slave uprising in Virginia

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 11: 1807: The British Slave Trade Act was passed abolished the slave trade in the British Empire, but not slavery itself.

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 12: 1807: The United States 'Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves of 1807', was passed by Congress stating that no new slaves were permitted to be imported into the United States which ended the legality of the U.S. based transatlantic slave trade.

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 13: 1811: German Coast Uprising slave uprising in Louisiana

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 14: 1815: George Boxley slave uprising in Virginia

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 15: 1820: The Missouri Compromise maintained the balance of slave states and free states

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 16: 1822: Denmark Vesey slave uprising in South Carolina

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 17: 1828: New York State abolishes slavery

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 18: 1829: David Walker's Appeal, a radical anti-slavery document, was published in September calling for slaves to rebel against their owners

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 19: 1830:Ohio's "Black Laws" encourage African-Americans to migrate to Canada, establishing free colonies that became important on the Underground Railroad

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 20: 1830: William Ellery Channing writes the 'Discourse on Spiritual Freedom' proposing that slaves should be set free, and their owners paid from the sale of government owned lands.

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 21: 1830: The Second Great Awakening begins leading to the establishment of the reform movements  in which people advocated for emancipation on religious grounds.

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 22: 1830: The Abolishment  Movement is established

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 23: 1830: Discourse on Spiritual Freedom written by William Ellery Channing proposing that slaves should be set free, and their owners paid from the sale of government owned lands.

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 24: 1830 The National Negro Convention for freed African-Americans is held in Philadelphia.

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 25: 1831: William Lloyd Garrison  begins the publication of the Liberator and proposes complete abolition of slavery without payment to slave owners.

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 26: 1831: Nat Turner's Rebellion took place in Southampton County, Virginia. It was suppressed after just 48 hours.

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 27: 1831: Bloody, retaliatory acts of revenge were inflicted on slaves throughout the South due to hysteria caused by Turner's revolt

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 28: 1832: The terrible acts of revenge led to the formation of groups dedicated to helping slaves escape which become known collectively as the Underground Railroad

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 29: 1833: The American Anti-slavery Society was formed

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 30: 1834: Great Britain abolishes slavery in its colonies

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 30: 1836: John Quincy Adams, once President, was now a member of the House of Representatives where he fought against slavery and the 'Gag Rule'

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 31: 1837: Abolitionist Elijah Lovejoy establishes the antislavery publication, the Alton Observer and is murdered

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 32: 1838: Frederick Douglass escapes slavery and becomes active in the abolitionist cause.

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 33: 1839: The Amistad Slave Ship revolt occured off the coast of Cuba on July 2, 1839. The Africans were defended by John Quincy Adams

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 34: 1846: The Wilmot Proviso, prohibiting slavery in any territory taken from Mexico, is passed in the House, but defeated in the Senate. The Wilmot Proviso ends the Gag Rule opening the subject of slavery in congress

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 35: 1847: Escaped Slave Frederick Douglass begins publication of the North Star in New York

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 36: 1848: Mexican Cession of western territory to the United States; North and South resume struggle over the status of slavery in federal territory.

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 37: 1849: Harriet Tubman Escapes and returns south at least 15 times to help rescue several hundred other slaves

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 38: 1850: Compromise of 1850. In exchange for California entering the Union as a free state, northern congressmen accept a harsher 1850 Fugitive Slave Act

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 39: 1852: Abolitionist Harriet Beecher Stowe publishes Uncle Tom’s Cabin. 300,000 copies are sold within a year of publication

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 40: 1854: The Kansas- Nebraska Act is passed allowing these two new territories to choose whether to allow slavery according to the principle of "popular sovereignty" refer to Popular Sovereignty and Slavery. Many Abolitionists joined the newly formed Republican Party.

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 41: 1854 -1861: Bleeding Kansas - A series of violent events involving abolitionists (including John Brown) and pro-Slavery factions that took place in Kansas Territory

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 42: 1857: Dred Scott Court Decision which stated that slaves were not citizens but the property of their owners and that Congress has no authority to outlaw slavery in any territory

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 43: 1859: Abolitionist John Brown and his raid at the federal arsenal in Harper’s Ferry, Virginia.

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 44: 1860: Southern Secession begins. South Carolina secedes in December and more states follow in 1861.

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 45: 1861: The beginning of the Civil War - also refer to Causes of the Civil War

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 46: 1863: Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation declaring all slaves in Rebel territory are free on January 1, 1863

Abolitionist Movement Timeline Fact 47: 1865: The End of the Civil War. The 13th Amendment is added to the Constitution, abolishing slavery.

Abolitionist Movement Timeline and Facts for kids

Also refer to the Underground Railroad, the Underground Railroad Symbols & Secret Codes and Underground Railroad Maps

Abolitionist Movement - Racial Discrimination and Segregation
For additional facts about racial discrimination and segregation refer to detailed information on Black Segregation History and for brief, fast facts refer to the Segregation History Timeline.

Black History for kids: Important People and Events
For visitors interested in African American History refer to Black History - People and Events. A useful resource  for teachers, kids, schools and colleges undertaking projects for the Black History Month.

Abolitionist Movement for kids - President Andrew Jackson Video
The article on the Abolitionist Movement provides an overview of one of the Important issues of his presidential term in office. The following Andrew Jackson video will give you additional important facts and dates about the political events experienced by the 7th American President whose presidency spanned from March 4, 1829 to March 4, 1837.

Abolitionist Movement

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