1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

 

James Knox Polk

Definition of Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Definition: The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed on February 2, 1848 by the United States and Mexico at the at Villa de Guadalupe Hidalgo and ended the American Mexican War (1846-1848). In the terms and provisions of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Mexico ceded Upper California and New Mexico to the United States that covered 525,000 square miles (1,360,000 square km) for a payment of $15,000,000.

1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo for kids
James Polk was the 11th American President who served in office from March 4, 1845 to March 4, 1849. One of the important events during his presidency was the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: Summary
The peace Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the Mexican American War which was primarily caused by the
refusal of Mexico to acknowledge the independence of Texas and its admission to the United States, and by border disputes.

The peace  Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was made in 1848 in which Mexico agreed to abandon claims to Texas, California, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah and Colorado. In return the United States agreed to pay Mexico $15,000,000 and withdraw its armies from Mexican soil. The Mexicans owed American settlers large sums of money and the provisions of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo also agreed to pay the claims of American citizens on Mexico. These claims proved to amount to $3,500,000.

The United States therefore paid just $18,500,000 for this massive and extremely valuable addition to its territory and increased the popular belief in the Manifest Destiny of the United  States.

Map of 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Map of 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

What was the date of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo?
The date the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed on February 2, 1848.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, was ratified by the U.S. Senate on March 10th, 1848 and ratified by the Mexican Congress on May 25th, 1848. As an additional point of interest the informal Treaty of Cahuenga that ended the fighting of the Mexican American War in Alta California was signed on January 13, 1848.

Where was the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo signed?
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed at Villa de Guadalupe Hidalgo, which is a northern neighborhood of Mexico City.

Who negotiated the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo?
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was negotiated by Nicholas Trist (1800 - 1894) for the United States with a special commission representing the collapsed government of Mexico led by Don Bernardo Couto, Don Miguel de Atristain, and Don Luis Gonzaga Cuevas.

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Background History for kids: President Polk and Nicholas Trist
During the Mexican American War Nicholas Trist had been sent by President James K. Polk to arrange an armistice with Mexico for up to $30 million.
California was divided into Alta ("Upper") and Baja ("Lower") California. President Polk made it clear that if Trist could not obtain Baja California and additional territory to the south, then the offer to the Mexicans should be reduced to $20 million. These original negotiations failed but Nicholas Trist went on to negotiate the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and ignored President Polk's specific instructions.  

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Background History for kids: Nicholas Trist ignores President Polk
Ignoring the instructions of the president Nicholas Trist negotiated the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and, to the absolute fury of James Polk, drew the boundary line directly West from Yuma to San Diego instead of from Yuma south to the Sea of Cortez leaving all of Baja California almost separate from Mexico. There was not enough time for renegotiation. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo had to stand as Nicholas Trist had negotiated and  the president most reluctantly had to give it his approval.

1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Text
Click the following link to read the full Text of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Terms and Provisions
Under the terms of the treaty negotiated by Nicholas Trist, Mexico ceded Upper California and New Mexico to the United States. This was known as the Mexican Cession (see Map below) and included present-day Arizona and New Mexico and parts of Utah, Nevada, and Colorado. Mexico relinquished all claims to Texas and recognized the Rio Grande as the southern boundary with the United States. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Important terms and provisions were as follows:

  • The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo brought an official end to the Mexican-American War (1846–48)

  • Article V of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo dealt with the Mexican Cession and included present-day Arizona and New Mexico and parts of Utah, Nevada, and Colorado. In Article V Mexico relinquished all claims to Texas and recognized the Rio Grande as the southern boundary with the United States

  • Articles VIII and IX of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo included provisions for the protection of property and civil rights of Mexican nationals living within the new boundaries of the United States. U.S. citizenship was granted to Mexicans living in the territory ceded by Mexico to the United States and guaranteed Mexican Americans "the right to their property, language, and culture."

  • Article X of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo had guaranteed the protection of Mexican land grants but this was deleted on March 10, 1848 by the US Senate during the ratification process

  • Article XI of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo included the promise of the United States to police its boundaries

  • Article XII of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo agreed that the United States would pay Mexico $15,000,000 "in consideration of the extension acquired by the boundaries of the United States"

  • Article XV of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo agreed to pay American citizens debts owed to them by the Mexican government

  • Article XXI of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo agreed to the compulsory arbitration of future disputes between the two countries

1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Significance
The significance of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was:

  • Zachary Taylor was heralded as a national hero during the Mexican-American War and became a future president of the United States

  • The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo added an additional 525,000 square miles to United States territory, including the land that makes up all, or parts of, present-day Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming

  • The California Gold Rush started with the discovery of gold by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Lumber Mill in Coloma on January 24, 1848, before the treaty was even signed

  • Mexico relinquished all claims to Texas and recognized the Rio Grande as America’s southern boundary

  • The Gadsden Purchase was agreed in 1853

  • The treaty increased the popular belief in the Manifest Destiny of the United  States of America

  • The Abolitionist Movement in the north opposed the annexation of Mexican territory

  • The acquisition of the new lands in the of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ignited the slavery debate which would lead to the American Civil war (1861-1865)

1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo for kids
The info about the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provides interesting facts and important information about this important event that occured during the presidency of the 11th President of the United States of America.

 

Presidential Seal

 

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: Map
The United States Territorial Expansion Map provides an over view of the treaties made in order to achieve the expansion of the United States. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo granted all land from Texas to California, minus the Gadsden Purchase.

The Gadsden Purchase: The Boundary Line
The Mexican and American commissioners failed to agree on the boundary line. The United States therefore paid an additional $10 million to Mexico and received an additional strip of land between the Rio Grande and the Colorado rivers giving the United States its present southern boundary. This agreement was made in 1853 by James Gadsden for the United States, and this additional land bought from Mexico is usually referred to as the Gadsden Purchase.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Map

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo for kids - President James K Polk Video
The article on the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provides an overview of one of the Important issues of his presidential term in office. The following James K Polk video will give you additional important facts and dates about the political events experienced by the 11th American President whose presidency spanned from March 4, 1845 to March 4, 1849.

 

 

 

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
 
Facts and summary of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Definition of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in US history
Facts about the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
James K Polk Presidency from March 4, 1845 to March 4, 1849
Fast, fun, facts about the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Foreign & Domestic policies of President James K Polk
James K Polk Presidency and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo for schools, homework, kids and children

 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo - US History and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo- Facts - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo - Definition of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo - American - US - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and USA History - Facts about Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo - America - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Date - United States - Kids - Children - Schools - Homework - Important - Facts - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo - Key Terms and provisions of Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo - History - Interesting - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo - Info about the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo - Information - American History - Facts - Historical - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo