Reconstruction Era

Summary and Definition of the Reconstruction Era
Summary and Definition:
The end of the conflict turned to the Reconstruction of the South after the Civil War. This period is referred to in American history as the Reconstruction Era and lasted from 1865-1877. Reconstruction is the term applied to the time period, or era, when the South was occupied by United States Federal troops whilst state governments and economies were established and the  infrastructure of the South was rebuilt.

Reconstruction Era for kids
Andrew Johnson was the 17th American President who served in office from April 15, 1865 to March 4, 1869. One of the important events during his presidency was the Reconstruction of the South following the Civil War.


Voting in the Reconstruction Era

The Reconstruction Plans of President Lincoln
Even before the end of Civil war President Lincoln began the task of restoration. On January 1, 1863 President Lincoln issued the
Emancipation Proclamation setting the scene for the abolition of slavery. On December 8, 1863 he issued a Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction for those areas of the Confederacy occupied by Union armies offering pardon to Confederates who would swear to support the Constitution and the Union. He then introduced the Ten Percent Plan.

The Reconstruction plans of President Lincoln were opposed by radical Republicans and passed the Wade-Davis Bill, which the President vetoed. The next measure was the 13th Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery, which was passed by Congress on January 31, 1865. And President Lincoln had enlarged powers of the Freedmen's Bureau. There was opposition to some of Lincoln's plans for Reconstruction by radicals in Congress who believed the South should just revert back to the old ways. By the time of Lincoln's assassination the President and Congress were at a stalemate.

Reconstruction Era: Background
The Reconstruction Era covered a period of 12 years in American History and started with the
End of the Civil War and the Assassination of President Abraham Lincoln. President Lincoln was pronounced dead on April 15, 1865 and Vice President Andrew Johnson assumed the presidency on the same day. Just hours after celebrating the end of the Civil War with the Surrender of Appomattox the nation was plunged into shock and mourning with the murder of President Lincoln. The assassin, John Wilkes Booth and his co-conspirators, had believed their action would help the Confederacy. But the South was just as appalled as the Northern states. People in the South feared that the people of the North would want revenge and would wreak a terrible retribution on the former Confederate States of America.

The Reconstruction Era for kids: President Andrew Johnson
This was the situation when President Andrew Johnson assumed the presidency. He had only been inaugurated as Vice President six weeks before the assassination of President Lincoln and had previously served as a Senator. He lacked experience and had neither the intelligence, patience nor the stature of Lincoln. He soon found himself at odds with the radicals in Congress and did not have the ability to compromise. Eventually Andrew Johnson would become the first American President to be impeached although he was acquitted. He was followed by President Ulysses S. Grant.

The Reconstruction Era for kids: President Ulysses S. Grant
The Civil War hero and General of the Union army, Ulysses S. Grant, became the third President during the Reconstruction Era. The main focus of the Grant administration was on Reconstruction, and he worked hard to reconcile the differences between the North and South whilst attempting to protect the civil rights of newly freed black slaves. Although an honest man his presidency was marred by a series of scandals involving corruption. After setting the scene for the Reconstruction Era this article continues to chart the Important events of this difficult period in American History with fast, Reconstruction Era facts presented in a timeline format.

40 Facts about the Reconstruction Era: Facts and Timeline for kids
Interesting Reconstruction Era Facts and Timeline for kids are detailed below. The history of the Reconstruction Era is told in a factual timeline sequence consisting of a series of interesting, short facts providing a simple method of relating the
history of the Reconstruction Era history for kids, schools and homework projects.

40 Reconstruction Era Facts and Timeline for kids

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 1: January 1, 1865 - The 13th Amendment approved in January to abolish slavery. It is ratified in December 1865

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 2: January 16,1865 - General William T. Sherman issues Special Field Order 15, setting aside confiscated plantation land along the coast of South Carolina and Georgia for black families to settle in 40-acre plots. 40,000 freedmen are living on the land by June 1865.

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 3: March 3,1865 - The Freedmen's Bureau Bill, (the Freedmen's Bureau) was a temporary government agency initiated by President Lincoln to assist freedmen (freed ex-slaves) in the South.

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 4: April 9, 1865 - End of the Civil War begins with the surrender of General Robert E. Lee to Union forces at Appomattox

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 5: April 14, 1865 - Assassination of President Lincoln by James Wilkes Booth

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 6: April 15, 1865 - Death of President Lincoln. Vice President Andrew Johnson assumes the Presidency

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 7: May 29, 1865 - President Johnson's amnesty proclamation was more severe than President Lincoln's. The proclamation deprived all former military and civil officers of the Confederacy of any power. All those who owned property worth $20,000 or more. Their estates were made liable to confiscation.

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 8: 1865 - The Black Codes were laws passed in Southern States restricting black people's freedom and the right to own property, conduct business, buy and lease land, and move freely through public spaces

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 9: 1865 - President Johnson adopted a lenient approach and granted pardons to Confederates on a large scale

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 10: November, 1865 - A "Colored People's Convention" assembled at Zion Church in Charleston to condemn the Black Codes.

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 11: December 1, 1865 - Johnson Declares End to Reconstruction. Congress is outraged, and Radical Republicans refuse to recognize new governments in southern states.

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 12: December 4, 1865 - Congress convened and refused to seat the Southern representatives. President Johnson retaliated by attacking Republican leaders and vetoing their Reconstruction measures

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 13: December 24, 1865 - The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) was founded in Pulaski, Tennessee

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 14: December, 1865 - By the end of of the year every ex-Confederate state, except Texas, had re-established civil government

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 15: February 2, 1866 - A black delegation led by Frederick Douglass meets with President Johnson at the White House to advocate black suffrage. The president expresses his opposition, and the meeting ends in controversy.

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 16: February 4, 1866 - A follow-up Freedmenís Bureau Bill was vetoed by President Andrew Johnson

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 17: April 9, 1866 - Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 declared "all persons born in the United States...hereby declared to be citizens of the United States." It was designed to protect ex-slaves from legislation such as the Black Codes

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 18: Apr. 28, 1866 - Joint Committee on Reconstruction reported that the ex-Confederate states were in a state of civil disorder, and had therefore not held valid elections. It also maintained that Reconstruction was a congressional, not an executive, function.

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 19: May, 1866 - The Memphis Riots when mobs of whites rampage through black neighborhoods

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 20: June 13, 1866 - The Fourteenth Amendment was passed by Congress

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 21: July 3, 1866 - A follow-up Freedmenís Bureau Bill was passed by Congress and the Senate providing additional rights to ex-slaves

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 22: July 24, 1866 - Tennessee is the first former Confederate state readmitted to the Union

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 23: July 30, 1866 - The New Orleans riots in which whites attack blacks at the Mechanics Institute

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 24: November 1866 - The radicals in Congress solidified their position by winning the elections of 1866. Every Southern state (except Tennessee) refused to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment and protect the rights of its black citizens

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 25: March 2, 1867 - The First of 4 Reconstruction Acts were passed over President Johnson's veto. "An act to provide for the more efficient government of the Rebel States" Second Act March 23, 1867. Third Act July 19 1867. Fourth Act March 11, 1868

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 26: March 2, 1867 - Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act which prohibited the president from removing officials appointed by the Senate without senatorial approval

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 27: December, 1867 - Johnson continued to oppose congressional policy, and insisted on the removal of the radical Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton, in defiance of the Tenure of Office Act

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 28: 30th March, 1868 - The Impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson began - the President was acquitted by one vote

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 29: 1868 - By 1868 most Southern states had repealed the Black Code laws. New Southern state laws saw the emergence of the Carpetbaggers and the Scalawags

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 30: 1868 - Former slave, Oscar J. Dunn, was elected as  first US Black Lieutenant Governor, serving in Louisiana from 1868 to 1871

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 31: August, 1868 - A total of six states (Arkansas, North Carolina, South Carolina, Louisiana, Alabama, and Florida) had been readmitted to the Union, having ratified the Fourteenth Amendment as required by the first Reconstruction Act.

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 32: September 28, 1868 - The Opelousas Massacre in Louisiana in which 200 to 300 black Americans are killed.

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 33: November 3, 1868 - Election of Ulysses S. Grant as president

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 34: July 1, 1869 - Freedmen's Bureau ends (although educational help continues for another 3 years)

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 35: February 3, 1870 - Fifteenth Amendment ratified stating that a citizen's right to vote cannot be taken away because of race, the color of their skin, or because they were previously slaves.

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 36: 1870 - Virginia, Mississippi, Texas, and Georgia were readmitted in 1870 after ratifying the 14th and 15th Amendment

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 37: February 23, 1870 - Hiram Revels elected to U. S. Senate as the first black senator

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 38: December 12, 1870 - Joseph H. Rainey, is the first black member sworn in as member of the House of Representatives

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 39: May 22, 1872 - Grant signs the Amnesty Act and only a few hundred former Confederates are excluded from political privileges

Reconstruction Era Timeline Fact 40: 1877 - Rutherford B. Hayes removes troops from South Carolina and Louisiana, signaling the end of Reconstruction.

Reconstruction Era Facts and Timeline for kids

Reconstruction Era for kids - President Andrew Johnson Video
The article on the Reconstruction Era provides an overview of one of the Important issues of his presidential term in office. The following Andrew Johnson video will give you additional important facts and dates about the political events experienced by the 17th American President whose presidency spanned from April 15, 1865 to March 4, 1869.

Reconstruction Era

● Interesting Facts about Reconstruction Era history for kids and schools
● Key events Reconstruction Era for kids
● The Reconstruction Era, a Important event in US history
● Andrew Johnson Presidency from April 15, 1865 to March 4, 1869
● Fast, fun, Reconstruction Era about events in his presidency
● Foreign & Domestic policies of President Andrew Johnson
● Andrew Johnson Presidency and Reconstruction Era for schools, homework, kids and children

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